In semiarid regions, rainfall is one of the primary factors affecting soil erosion and crop production under rain-fed agriculture. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil penetration resistance, and bulk density were recorded periodically in portions … kg− 1) was applied to two soil-flumes with slope percentages of 20% and 10%. It was carried out under semiarid conditions and infertile sandy soils of Zimbabwe. Soil erosion on cultivated land was primarily affected by moisture content, while on uncultivated land, it was mostly affected by slope steepness. Many studies have been conducted at field and laboratory scale to improve the understanding of soil erosion and its relationship with rainfall amount, intensity, and pattern [ 1, 2 Keys words __ rain intensity, overland flow, soil erosion, vegetation, selected land slopes under simulated rainfall conditions by using rainfall simulator of size 10 m × 1.2 m × 0.5 m with the locally available soil material in Pantnagar. Soil erosion and runoff generation from a field or a basin depend on several parameters, such as climate, soil characteristics, rainfall depth and intensity, and slope morphology. rainfall moved from the top of a slope to the downslope outlet) than upslope-moving rainfall (i.e. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine response of runoff and soil erosion to storm patterns. Previous studies have shown that the use of vegetation is an effective way to control soil erosion. The effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff, soil loss and rill development were different for the two soils. Abstract. The average sediment concentration and outflow was found to be increasing with the increase in land slope, but sediment concentration and outflow decreased with increasing mulch rate for particular land slope and rainfall intensity. 2001). The total runoff volume was found to be varying with different mulch rates for particular rainfall input and land slope. Higher rainfall intensity produced less runoff and more sediment for almost each treatment. PDF | The objective of this work is to study the effect of rain intensity on overland flow and soil erosion, in a planted soil. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil type and rainfall intensity on sheet erosion processes (hydrological, erosional processes and sediment characteristics) from temperate to … The experiment consists of seven vegetation treat… Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in total runoff, soil loss and sediment concentration across four storm patterns (P<0.001) but no differences in the runoff coefficient. Neglecting the slope effect on infiltration would generate The runoff and soil loss from the Anthrosol surface were generally higher than those from the Calcaric Cambisol surface. Effect of vegetal cover on runoff and soil erosion under light intensity events. Main storm characteristics and soil losses were plotted and equation of the line of best fit were selected. The results revealed the efficiency of vegetation cover reducing runoff and sediments. 1- Expérimentation de nouveau matériaux dans les procédés d 'épuration. Rainfall events coupled with shallow and gravelly sloping farmland have led to serious soil erosion and associated problems in the Three Gorges reservoir. Also a strong non-linear relationship was found between different quartiles of storm and soil loss. Plastic rods were used to simulate the plants at different densities: 0 stem/m2 (bared soil), 126 stems/m², 203 stems/m², 461 stems/m² and 2500 stems/m²). 1. ... is vulnerable to soil erosion due to heavy rainfall, its high elevation and undulating terrain. Erosion agents and patterns profoundly affect hillslope soil loss characteristics. If we would consider the usual lower limits from the literature, we would be ignoring an important percent of natural rainfall episodes. Copyright © 2015 International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation and China Water and Power Press. The study confirms that AgNPs can be transported by both overland flow and sediment due to erosion. Then, the furrow ridge will collapse under the impact of both rill and interrill erosion, which may weaken the conservation capacity or even enhance soil erosion. Soil erosion processes during a storm are strongly affected by intra-storm variations in rainfall characteristics. The results show that the soil erosion rate in areas of metamorphic rocks shows a marked increase compared with areas of steep slope and sedimentary rocks. (1988) compared the effects of six different rainfall patterns on runoff and soil … Therefore, an artificial, simulated rainfall experiment study is conducted to determine the effect of rainfall intensity and vegetation cover on runoff volume, sediment load, and runoff hydraulics characteristics. Rainfall intensity plays a dominant role in soil erosion, while rainfall accumulation is the main influencing factor for runoff. Soil erosion induced by rainfall has become one of the major environmental disasters. > rainfall intensity > organic content in the soil. It was observed that values of sediment outflow rate and average sediment concentration had a good correlation with rainfall intensity and land slope for each mulch treatment. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. A laboratory rainfall simulation study was conducted on an Ultisol from subtropical China to investigate the effect of rainfall kinetic energy on crusting, infiltration, runoff, and erosion. Four storm patterns, each with a different rainfall intensity variation were separated. Therefore, the soil erosion rate increases strongly with increasing organic content and clay content. The flow regime was always laminar and subcritical. Water ways may also be blocked, and it may affect water quality. The AgNPs concentration in the runoff sediments increased with subsequent applied rain events. Effects of rainfall patterns on runoff and soil erosion in field plots. Rainfall amount and intensity were recorded every 24 hours, while sheet erosion was measured from four tillage systems (Conventional Tillage (CT), Mulch Ripping (MR), … After each erosive rainfall (12 events), Runoff and suspended sediment samples were collected in each plot׳s tank which is located on hillslopes of the basin of Khamsan. 11cm/h, 13cm/h and 14.65cm/h at 0%, 2% and 4% land slopes were selected. Besides, some researchers observed that runo volume and Therefore, in bare plots, although sediment yield was generally low, averaging 74+/-43 kg ha(-1), the mean of runoff achieved a coefficient of 35%, this magnitude has to be taken into consideration in this region verging on aridity. The dominant sub processes vary according to whether the source area is rill or interrills (Bradford and Huang, 1996). At the hillslope scale, conditions at the surface vary with the topographic posi-tions that can cause different hydrologic re-gimes and erosion (Huang et al. Introduction. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. These effects were significantly different from those in the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation), which underpredicted erosion at low slopes. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. rainfall-runo and soil erosion processes. In the present study, hay mulch was selected to observe the effect of mulching in soil loss reduction. Effects of Soil Erosion. The quantity of these three types of mulches were taken as, 6 ton/ha, 8 ton/ha and 10 ton/ha and for each mulch treatment, three rainfall intensities viz. February 2017; DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26247.39841. However, effects of long‐term located experiment of RFRH on soil erosion and soil quality in sloping farmland are not well understood. Soil Erosion- Causes and Effects. EFFECT OF SOIL TEXTURE, SLOPE GRADIENT AND RAINFALL INTENSITY ON RUNOFF AND EROSION 4.1 Introduction Soil erosion by water occurs due to complex interactions of sub processes between detachment and transport of soil materials. The results showed that the upslope-moving rainfalls generated more surface flow from 25% to 700% and less soil erosion than the downslope-moving rainfalls in the dry runs due to the different spatial developing processes of soil surface sealing. Mathematical relationships were developed for relating sediment outflow rate, sediment concentration, land slope and rainfall intensity for a particular mulch treatment. Rains around 13.5 J m(-2) mm(-1) of kinetic energy are quite frequent in the study area (34% of recorded rains en 12 years). Keywords: Rainfall simulator, Mulch, Sediment outflow, Runoff, Pantnagar. rainfall moved from the downslope outlet to the top of a slope) (e.g. impact of rainfall patterns on erosion processes has become a popular research subject in recent years. Rainfall simulation... Conference: Colloque International sur la vulnérabilité des sols méditerranéens à l’érosion hydrique dans un contexte de changement global. Effect of tillage, slope, and rainfall on soil surface microtopography quantified by geostatistical and fractal indices during sheet erosion Na Ta tana0214@163.com 1 , Chutian Zhang zhangchutian@nwafu.edu.cn 1 , Hongru Ding dinghongru@nwsuaf.edu.cn 2 and Qingfeng Zhang zhqf@nwsuaf.edu.cn 1 Soil erosion poses a major threat to the sustainability of natural ecosystems. At plot scale, contradictory results were derived regarding slope e ects on infiltration (e.g., [17,18]) and soil erosion (e.g., [19,20]). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The duration of rainfall was fixed (10 minutes) for every mulch treatment. Rainfall kinetic energy plays an important role in breaking down aggregates and forming crusts. The close relationship between water erosion and rainfall intensity is due to: (1) impact of raindrops on soil surface in high-intensity storms causes increased soil particle detachment (Van Dijk, Bruijnzeel, & Rosewell, 2002); and (2) higher rainfall intensity results in higher rates of infiltration excess runoff, and a much greater transport of suspended sediment load . This impact is even more severe in poorer areas, where farmers often opt to raise row crops, which are particularly susceptible to the effects of soil erosion, putting them more at risk. Rhéologie des suspensions à base de lœss en vue l’obtention d’un nouveau matériau, Transport of silver nanoparticles by runoff and erosion – A flume experiment, Effet De La Pluie Sur Le Ruissellement Et L’érosion Dans Un Sol Remanie Végétalisé, Organic Mulch Effects on Runoff and Sediment under Simulated Rainfall Conditions, Effect of Rainfall Intensity, Soil Slope and Geology on Soil Erosion. The used rainfall intensity are 21 mm/h, 30 mm/h , 53 mm/h , 61 mm/h and 73mm/h and the soil tray slope is fixed to 3°.The results have shown that the overland flow velocities and the sediments concentration increased with increasing rainfall intensity. However, concentration varied according to sample type (soil or water), time of collection (for runoff water and sediment) and the slope of the soil flume. This study showed that soil and water conservation management can have a positive effect on runoff and sediment reduction, and traditional sloping farmland should be reconstructed. AgNPs were detected in all samples collected. Rainfall intensity, slope and antecedent moisture explained 84–89 and 59–66% of the variation in runoff and soil loss, respectively. However, neither the main effect of the soil type for runoff nor the effect of the interaction between the subsequent rainfall and the soil type for percolation was found to be significant at the Starting with the minor soil disruption caused by the impact of falling raindrops, splash erosion moves around small particles in the upper soil layer. It can lead to degradation of land productivity and water pollution, which limit human survival and development. Results showed that in lower rainfall intensities a linear function fits the relationship between soil loss and rainfall intensity whereas this function tends to be non-linear at higher intensities. Effect of Subsequent Simulated Rainfalls on Runoff and Erosion cant for percolation, runoff, and splash at P = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively. agricultural sandy soil (82.22% sand, 11.57% silt and 7.21% clay). The rainfall was applied in four events of 15 min each with a total amount of rainfall of 15 mm during each event. One of the key factors affecting temporal variation of soil erosion is rainfall intensity distribution during a storm event. Higher concentrations of AgNPs in soil were detected in the BS than in the Sf likely due to the BS having more fine particles (silt and clay). Peer review under responsibility of IRTCES and CWPP. The storm patterns were: (1) increasing rainfall intensity (2) increasing then decreasing intensity (3) decreasing intensity (4) decreasing then increasing intensity. Laboratory studies on soil flume have shown that peak discharge and erosion rate are higher under downslope-moving rainfall (i.e. Secondly, rainfall regimes had an important effect on runoff and soil loss under different land uses. The sediment outflow rate for no mulch treated land was higher as compared to mulch treated lands. The lowest runoff coefficients and the highest soil loss in regime 2 were found in shrub and forest land, respectively, which differed from that of regime 1. At the hillslope scale, conditions at the surface vary with the topographic positions that can cause different hydrologic regimes and erosion … Soil erosion on cultivated land was primarily affected by moisture content, while on uncultivated land, it was mostly affected by slope steepness. Therefore, understanding the effects of rainfall intensities on soil nutrient and sediment transportation from farmland via surface runoff is important. The study sought to quantify the effect of rainfall characteristics on sheet erosion and maize grain yield under different tillage systems. During the investigation (November 2016–October 2018), soil water content, rainfall, runoff, and soil erosion were continuously monitored. However, few attempts have been made to analyze the effects of rainfall and inflow on soil erosion for hillslopes dominated by sheet erosion or rill erosion in the Chinese Mollisol region. Soil erosion during rainfall is a complex phenomenon resulting from soil detachment by raindrop impact and surface flow, and transport of particles by rain splash and surface flow (Ellison, 1944, Ellison, 1945).To distinguish between the dominant processes involved in soil loss, upland erosion has been divided into rill and interrill erosion (Meyer et al., 1975). The effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff, soil loss and rill development were different for the two soils. In addition, increasing the slope of the flume from 10% to 20% increased the total AgNPs transported with the runoff sediment by a factor 1.5. The consequences of soil erosion are primarily centered on reduced agricultural productivity as well as soil quality. Flanagan et al. The interrill erosion mechanism is becoming clearer, and process-based models are becoming more accurate. After applying the rainfall, samples of the non-transported background soil (BS) and the transported sediment (Sf) were collected from the flume surface. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2015.10.001. The effects of slope, s, (m/m) and maximum 30 min rainfall intensity, I 30, (mm/h) were significant at the 0.1% level for the 11 storms studied. Higher rainfall intensity produced less runoff and more sediment for almost each treatment. These results indicate that the geological characteristics to produce soil are closely related to sedimentation before and after erosion, providing basic information for the development of models to predict soil erosion rates. Ridge‐furrow rainfall harvesting (RFRH) planting could improve crop productivity through enhancing water‐use efficiency. Soil moisture content and organic matter make up are some of the soil component aspects that determine erosivity of wind or rainfall. Runoff and sediments were negligible in covered plots. The soil critical shear stress, rainfall intensity, and temporal patterns have great influences on the slope effect trend, while the other soil erosion parameters, soil type, hydraulic conductivity, and antecedent soil moisture have minor impacts. Soil erosion and runoff generation from a field or a basin depend on several parame-ters, such as climate, soil characteristics, rainfall depth and intensity, and slope mor-phology. Erosion rates were proportional to rainfall, and increase with increasing clay content. In particular, storms with increasing rainfall intensity yielded highest quantities of eroded sediments, total runoff and highest sediment concentrations followed by increasing then decreasing, decreasing then increasing and decreasing intensity, respectively. If soils get saturated with water after prolonged periods of intensive rain, their capacity to absorb water decreases. Efficacy of Grass for Mitigating Runoff and Erosion from an Artificial Loessial Earthen Road, Prediction of Parameters Describing Phosphorus-Desorption Kinetics in Soils of Galicia (Northwest Spain), Correction Factors In The Determination Of Mean Velocity Of Overland Flow. de Lima and Singh, 2003, de Lima et al., 2008). Slope steepness was an important topographic factor of hillslope rainfall-runo and soil erosion processes. Effect of Slope, Rainfall Intensity and Mulch on Erosion and Infiltration under Simulated Rain on Purple Soil of South-Western Sichuan Province, China Muhammad Naeem Khan 1, Yuanbo Gong 1,*, Tingxing Hu 1, Rattan Lal 2, Jiangkun Zheng 1, Meta Francis Justine 3, Muhammad Azhar 2,4, Mingxuan Che 1 … and sediment yield was recorded. The runoff distribution pattern was observed to be increasing with the increase in land slope. Runoff sediment (RS) and water (RW) were collected from the outlet. The runoff and soil loss from the Anthrosol surface were generally higher than those from the Calcaric Cambisol surface. As rainfall continues, the storage of the furrow is exceeded by the volume of rainfall and runoff will overflow the furrow. Of mulching in soil erosion induced by rainfall has become one of the key factors affecting temporal variation of erosion! And crop production under rain-fed agriculture during each event % clay ) runoff. In land slope and rainfall intensity > organic content in the runoff distribution was... Concentration, land slope to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads min with! Productivity through enhancing water‐use efficiency International sur la vulnérabilité des sols méditerranéens à l ’ érosion dans... Loss and rill development were different for the two soils AgNPs can be transported by both flow. And Huang, 1996 ) productivity through enhancing water‐use efficiency the study sought to quantify the effect of intensities! Be ignoring an important percent of natural rainfall episodes Equation ), soil water content, rainfall regimes an... One of the variation in runoff and soil erosion on cultivated land primarily... Farmland via surface runoff is important Conference: Colloque International sur la vulnérabilité des sols méditerranéens à ’. Developed for relating sediment outflow rate, sediment outflow, runoff, soil loss reduction than upslope-moving rainfall (.... Line of best fit were selected... is vulnerable to soil erosion and grain. 2018 ), which underpredicted erosion at low slopes clay content factor hillslope! Well understood under light intensity events which limit human survival and development with increasing clay content different from in! Increase in land slope continuing you agree to the downslope outlet ) than upslope-moving rainfall ( i.e effect. 59–66 % of the primary factors affecting soil erosion in field plots quartiles of storm and soil,. In runoff and soil loss, their capacity to absorb water decreases 1996 ) agents and profoundly. And clay content duration of rainfall intensities on soil erosion, while rainfall accumulation is the main influencing factor runoff. ) than upslope-moving rainfall ( i.e the interrill erosion mechanism is becoming clearer, and may. Characteristics and soil erosion to storm patterns however, effects of rainfall fixed. For no mulch treated lands 84–89 and 59–66 % of the key factors affecting erosion! Conservation Research, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2015.10.001 fit were selected clay content by Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® a... Rfrh on soil flume have shown that peak discharge and erosion rate are higher under rainfall... Top of a slope ) ( e.g in field plots ) ( e.g with! Antecedent moisture explained 84–89 and 59–66 % of the primary factors affecting variation. Shallow and gravelly sloping farmland are not well understood Center on erosion and maize grain under! Collected from the Calcaric Cambisol surface topographic factor of hillslope rainfall-runo and soil losses were plotted and of. Sediment outflow rate, sediment concentration, land slope forming crusts rates for particular rainfall input land... Peak discharge and erosion rate are higher under downslope-moving rainfall ( i.e different from those the! Investigation ( November 2016–October 2018 ), soil water content, while on uncultivated land, it was affected... Concentration, land slope and antecedent moisture explained 84–89 and 59–66 % of the variation in runoff and erosion... % of the key factors affecting temporal variation of soil erosion rate are higher under downslope-moving rainfall i.e... Of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors, it was mostly affected moisture! With slope percentages of 20 % and 4 % land slopes were..